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PostSubject: Inside the antechamber of the Amphipolis tomb    Fri Aug 22, 2014 9:23 am

Archaeologists Ready to Enter Tomb in Amphipolis

by Nikoleta Kalmouki - Aug 14, 2014




Archaeologists are ready to enter the tomb in Amphipolis, northern Greece, which is considered one of the most important discoveries in the country, dated from around 300 BC – the time of Alexander the Great.


Archaeologists have unearthed a 4.5-meter-wide road and 13 steps that lead to the tomb’s entrance, which is guarded by two carved sphinxes. Excavation work will continue until researchers enter the tomb. The discoveries within the tomb are of great importance as they are crucial for accurate dating.


A stone wall, constructed after the burial to protect the tomb, is going to be destroyed. All the pieces of the wall will be kept by the team of archaeologists.


A geophysical prospecting conducted in the monument has shown that there are three areas inside the tomb. Worst-case scenario would be the collapse of the roof which means that the tomb is filled with dirt. In that case, the area will be carefully cleaned in order to protect grave offerings.


When the archaeologists enter the burial space, they will identify if the tomb is robbed. In that scenario, there is a major risk that important discoveries have been removed.


If the tomb is intact, the researchers will be able to give accurate information on the identity of the dead, based on the bones, sex, skeleton’s height and grave goods.


Although the tomb is dated from the era of Alexander the Great, archaeologists claim that it is highly unlikely that the Greek king was buried at ancient Amphipolis. However, they believe that an important Macedonian official was buried there.


- See more at: http://greece.greekreporter.com/2014/08/14/archaeologists-ready-to-enter-tomb-in-amphipolis/#sthash.N9M5kKUs.dpuf


Last edited by ColonelZ on Wed Aug 27, 2014 9:30 am; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Architectural elements emerge at Amphipolis tomb   Sat Aug 23, 2014 9:38 pm

Architectural elements emerge at Amphipolis tomb


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 6:00 PM 


Most of the earth around the two sphinxes found under an apse at the Kasta Tumulus in Amphipolis has been removed, the Culture ministry announced on Thursday, revealing the upper register of a marble lintel with frescoes under the base of the sphinxes. 










Below the base of the Sphinxes, the upper portion of the marble doorway, covered with  a fresco imitating an Ionic architrave is decorated with red, blue and black colours  [Credit: Press Office Ministry of Culture and Sport]


 The lintel mimics an Ionic lintel (epistyle) in paint, including the colours red, blue and black. It rests on two Ionic capitals, also painted with the same colours, crowning the pillasters that form the door frame.


 The archaeological service is continuing the removal of the earth around the apse and the stones of the protecting wall below it, while Friday's work will include stabilising Thursday's findings.


 Earlier on Thursday, Culture Minister Constantinos Tasoulas confirmed that parts of the wings of the sphinxes were found, adding that the excavation works continue and may take two weeks or more before drawing definite conclusions. 

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/08/achitectural-elements-emerge-at.html#.U_lBP_mwLCc
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PostSubject: Amphipolis tomb sparks intense interest   Sat Aug 23, 2014 9:42 pm

Amphipolis tomb sparks intense interest


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 11:00 PM 






Archaeologists excavating a large burial mound in northern Greece that has captivated the public's imagination have asked politicians and others seeking guided tours of the site to leave them in peace. 






Two large stone sphinxes are seen under a barrel-vault topping the entrance to an  ancient tomb under excavation at Amphipolis in northern Greece. Archaeologists  excavating the large grave mound on Thursday asked politicians and others seeking  guided tours of the site to leave them in peace until the dig is completed. The partially  uncovered tomb, from the end of Greek warrior-king Alexander the Great?s reign, has  captivated the public imagination, fueling wild speculation that it may contain rich  treasure and the bones of an ancient celebrity [Credit: AP/Culture Ministry, HO] 


The Culture Ministry appealed Thursday for "understanding" while the Amphipolis excavation proceeds. 


The partially uncovered tomb from the end of Greek warrior-king Alexander the Great's reign, which was found inside the mound, has sparked intense media interest amid wild speculation that it may contain rich treasures or the bones of an ancient celebrity. 


Alexander inherited the throne of Macedonia, in northern Greece, from where he set off to conquer a vast empire reaching India. He died in 323 B.C. at age 33 and was buried in Egypt - although the precise location of his grave is one of the enduring mysteries of archaeology. 


Greek Prime Minister Antonis Samaras has already visited the Amphipolis excavation and state TV daily leads news bulletins with incremental developments about the dig. 






A marble block covering the entrance of the tomb is carefully removed  by archaeologists [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 So far, archaeologists have uncovered part of the late 4th-century B.C. tomb's entrance, which has two large marble sphinxes placed on a lintel just under the barrel-vaulted roof. Underneath lies the doorway, still covered in earth, with traces of painted plaster decoration.


 "It's astonishing, the biggest tomb we have found in Greece so far," said archaeologist Chryssoula Paliadelli, an expert on the period who is not involved in the excavation. "It clearly shows the wealth that allowed construction of what was, at the time, a hugely costly monument."


 But the tomb may well have been looted hundreds and hundreds of years ago.


 Part of a stone wall that blocked off the subterranean entrance is missing, while the sphinxes - originally two meters (6 feet) high - lack heads and wings. Near the sphinxes, excavators have found fragments of a large marble lion that originally capped the mound, which indicates the site was severely damaged and dug up in later antiquity.


 Nobody knows yet who the mound was built for.






 A crane putting aside the marbles of the entry of the site where archaeologists have  unearthed a funeral mound dating from the time of Alexander the Great, in Amphipolis,  Northern Greece. It is believed to be the largest ever discovered in Greece but archaeologists  are stumped about who was buried in it [Credit: AFP/Sakis Mitrolidis]


 Alexander's mother, widow, son, brother and sister-in-law were all murdered in separate attacks in the Amphipolis area during the brutal power struggles that followed his death. However, Macedonian royals were traditionally buried at Aegae, further to the west, where rich, unplundered graves excavated in the late 1970s have been identified as those of Alexander's father, Philip II, and a slain son. 


Older research has tentatively linked the lion statue, which was removed during Roman times and discovered a century ago some 5 kilometers (3 miles) away, with Laomedon, one of Alexander's military commanders; his admiral, Nearchos, was a citizen of Amphipolis.


 "It's all speculation until we see the inside (of the tomb)" said Michalis Tiverios, a professor of archaeology at the University of Thessaloniki. 


The excavation is expected to last at least another few weeks.

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/08/amphipolis-tomb-sparks-intense-interest.html#.U_lCJvmwLCc
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PostSubject: Re: Inside the antechamber of the Amphipolis tomb    Sun Aug 24, 2014 8:08 pm

Very interesting!  I'm thrilled to read about the ongoing archaeology here.
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PostSubject: Amphipolis tomb entrance gradually revealed   Sun Aug 24, 2014 9:34 pm

Amphipolis tomb entrance gradually revealed


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 6:00 PM 


The archaeological excavation at Kasta Tumulus in Ancient Amphipolis continues steadily, said the Culture Ministry in an announcement on Sunday. 






View of the tomb's entrance [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 According to the announcement "ten more stones, part of the seventh and eighth row of the sealing wall were removed with three more remaining of the eleven-row stone wall.






 View of one of the pilasters at the tomb's entrance  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


The adornment of the next part of the entrance of the tomb was revealed which is the same as the decoration of the side walls. A white coloured fresco that mimics the marble enclosure". 










Rear view of the Ionic capital of one of the pilasters and the painted fresco  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 Meanwhile, the side walls of the antechamber covered with Thassos marble and adorned on the upper part with ionic capitals with traces of black and red colour are gradually revealed. 

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/08/amphipolis-tomb-entrance-gradually.html#.U_qRQvmwLCc
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PostSubject: Game over for Greece's mystery grave: Tomb raiders plundered site in antiquity - dashing hopes of finding artefacts dating back to Alexander the Great's reign   Tue Aug 26, 2014 7:44 am

Game over for Greece's mystery grave: Tomb raiders plundered site in antiquity - dashing hopes of finding artefacts dating back to Alexander the Great's reign




  • The tomb is situated in Amphipolis region of Serres in Greece
  • Its huge burial site is said to date back between 325 and 300 BC
  • This means it could have been built during the reign of Alexander the Great
  • Experts had hoped it would hold the remains of a senior ancient official 

  • But they have found signs of forced entry and think it was looted long ago

  • Mysterious headless sphinxes were found at its entrance earlier this week



PUBLISHED: 04:33 EST, 26 August 2014 | UPDATED: 05:28 EST, 26 August 2014


It was described as 'incredibly important' and of 'global importance,' but now archaeologists have discovered that a mysterious tomb in Greece was plundered in antiquity.


Experts had hoped that the ancient mound in northern Greece contained the untouched remains of an important senior official from the time of Alexander the Great, as well as possible treasures.


But now it appears that signs of forced entry outside the huge barrel-vaulted structure, indicate the tomb was emptied long ago.


Scroll down for video





Archaeologists were hopeful that an ancient mound in northern Greece could hold the remains of a senior official from the time of Alexander the Great. They discovered that its entrance is guarded by a pair of sphinxes (pictured) but now say that signs of forced entry indicate it was plundered in antiquity

Archeologists entered the underground structure earlier this week and The Culture Ministry said that it appears to have been looted in antiquity.


At 1,935ft (590m) wide, it is the largest burial of its kind ever discovered in Greece.


Experts had partially investigated the antechamber of the tomb at the Kasta Tumulus site near ancient Amphipolis in Macedonia, Greece, and uncovered a marble wall concealing one or more inner chambers.


They said that a hole in the decorated wall and signs of forced entry indicate it was plundered, but excavations will continue for weeks to make sure.

The tomb dates between 325 BC - two years after the death of ancient Greek warrior-king Alexander the Great - and 300 BC. Its discovery and a visit there by Greece's prime minister sparked extensive speculation on its contents.


Earlier this week, photographs emerged of a pair of sphinxes guarding the grave's entrance beneath a large arch and Greece’s Culture Ministry said that most of the earth around the mythical creatures had been removed to reveal part of a marble lintel with frescoes.



Chief archaeologist Katerina Peristeri, said that the monument being uncovered is a unique tomb, not just for Greece but for the entire Balkanic peninsula, and described it as being of ‘global interest’.  







Archaeologists excavating an ancient mound in northern Greece (picutred) uncovered the entrance to an important tomb. It is believed to have been built at the end of the reign of warrior-king Alexander the Great and Prime Minister Antonis Samaras described the discovery as 'extremely important’


WHO WAS ALEXANDER THE GREAT?





Alexander (statue pictured) was born in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia in July 356 BC, and died of a fever in Babylon in June 323 BC


Alexander III of Macedon was born in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia in July 356 BC.


He died of a fever in Babylon in June 323 BC.


Alexander led an army across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt claiming the land as he went.


His greatest victory was at the Battle of Gaugamela, now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, and during his trek across these Persian territories, he was said to never have suffered a defeat.


This led him to be known as Alexander the Great. 


Following this battle in Gaugamela, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles (17,700km), founded over 70 cities and created an empire that stretched across three continents.


This covered from Greece in the west, to Egypt in the south, Danube in the north, and Indian Punjab to the East.  


Alexander was buried in Egypt.


His fellow royals were traditionally interred in a cemetery near Vergina, far to the west.
 
The lavishly-furnished tomb of Alexander's father, Philip II, was discovered during the 1970s. 


Prime Minister Antonis Samaras, who visited the tightly-guarded site two weeks ago, said the discovery ‘is clearly extremely important’.



Alexander, who started from the northern Greek region of Macedonia to build an empire stretching as far as India, died in 323 B.C. and was buried in Egypt.


His fellow royals were traditionally interred in a cemetery near Vergina, to the west, where the lavishly-furnished tomb of Alexander's father, Philip II, was discovered during the 1970s.



But archaeologists believe the Amphipolis grave, which is surrounded by a surprisingly long and well-built wall with courses of marble decorations, may have belonged to a senior ancient official.

Dr Peristeri has argued the mound was originally topped by a large stone lion that was unearthed a century ago, and is now situated around 3 miles (5km) from the excavation site. 



Geophysical teams have identified there are three main rooms within the huge circular structure, news.com.au reported.



In the past, the lion has been associated with Laomedon of Mytilene, one of Alexander's military commanders who became governor of Syria after the king's death.




Greece's culture ministry said that most of the earth around the sphinx statues has now been removed to reveal part of a marble lintel with frescoes (pictured) but hopes of finding further treasures now seem to be slim





Significant ancient Greek tomb unearthed







The tomb is situated in Amphipolis region of Serres in Greece (marked). Archaeologists believe the grave may have belonged to a senior ancient official. While it looks largely undisturbed, there are fears that looting took place hundreds of years ago



THE GREEK SPHINX


In Greek tradition, the mythical sphinx has the haunches of a lion, sometimes with the wings of a great bird, and the face of a human - usually a woman.



It was described by writers as being treacherous and merciless.



In many myths, including Oedipus, those who could not answer a riddle posed by the monster, would be killed and eaten.



The sphinx described by the Ancient Egyptians was usually male and more benevolent.



In both cultures, they often guarded entrances to temples and important tombs.



The oldest sphinx found guarding a site was discovered in Turkey and dates to 9,500 BC.


‘The excavation will answer the crucial question of who was buried inside,’ Mr Samaras said.


Earlier this week, experts shared their fears that the tomb could have been looted hundreds of years ago.



Part of a stone wall that blocked off the subterranean entrance was found to be missing, while the sphinxes, which were originally six feet (2metres) high, lack heads and wings. 



Near the sphinxes, excavators have found fragments of a large marble lion that originally capped the mound, which they said indicates the site was severely damaged and dug up in later antiquity.


Last week The Culture Ministry called for ‘understanding’ while the Amphipolis excavation proceeds.


The discovery has sparked global interest and wild speculation that it may contain rich treasures or the bones of an ancient celebrity.

‘It's astonishing, the biggest tomb we have found in Greece so far,’ said archaeologist Chryssoula Paliadelli, an expert on the period who is not involved in the excavation. 



‘It clearly shows the wealth that allowed construction of what was, at the time, a hugely costly monument.’





Excavator Katerina Peristeri has argued the mound was originally topped by a large stone lion that was unearthed a century ago, and is now situated around 3 miles (5km) from the excavation site (pictured). The lion has been associated with Laomedon of Mytilene, who was one of Alexander's military commanders


Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2734502/Game-Greeces-mystery-grave-Tomb-raiders-plundered-site-antiquity-dashing-hopes-finding-artefacts-dating-Alexander-Greats-reign.html#ixzz3BUt4i3p6 

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PostSubject: Inside the antechamber of the Amphipolis tomb   Wed Aug 27, 2014 9:35 am

Inside the antechamber of the Amphipolis tomb


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 6:00 PM 


Archaeologists excavating the Kasta Tomb in Ancient Amphipolis on Monday entered the burial mound that has drawn international attention. The blocks were removed from the sealing wall, revealing the front of the funerary monument. 






Debris was removed to reach the prothalamos  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


The facade is decorated in the same style as the side walls with a fresco imitating the broad marble retaining wall (perivolos). The doorway is 1.67 meters wide without the appearance of door panels. The side walls of the chamber are lined with Thassos marble and are adorned with Ionic architrave.






 The hole on the left has caused speculation as to whether the tomb may have been  plundered many years ago though no official comments were made  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


The prothalamos, or antechamber, has marble walls, however six meters from the doorway there is a missing part on the left of a dividing wall. The wall, decorated with eight-petalled rose motifs in relief, also bears a marble lintel resembling the outer one. Archaeologists expect that there is another opening below that will allow them to enter the tomb’s interior.






 Architrave inside the prothalamos [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


The hole in the decorated wall and signs of forced entry outside the huge barrel-vaulted sculpture are of concern to scientists and indicate that the tomb may have been plundered long ago. 






In the center and in front of the entrance a pebbled floor has been disclosed ,  consisting of rectangular and square shapes, surrounded by black and white  diamond shapes [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 Latest findings by the Ministry of Culture on Tuesday revealed part of a pebbled mosaic floor at the entrance to the monument after the last register of the wall protecting the entrance of the tomb was removed.  The design contains quadrilateral shapes surrounded by black and white diamond shapes. The bottom of facade has traces of blue that is also visible on the side walls.

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/08/inside-antechamber-of-amphipolis-tomb.html#.U_3dKvldUlo
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PostSubject: Video footage of Amphipolis tomb from the air    Sun Aug 31, 2014 7:38 am

Video footage of Amphipolis tomb from the air 


Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 5:00 PM 


A video that captures the work made at Amphipolis and reveals the size and the grandeur of the excavations came to light on Wednesday. 






Filmed from a helicopter by a Greek channel, it clearly shows the area covered by the monument while giving a taste of the difficulties and time-consuming nature of the operations. 






The archaeologists involved in the excavation  are focusing on the maintenance and protection of the findings. Source: Protothema News [August 28, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/08/video-footage-of-amphipolis-tomb-from.html#.VAMIYfldUlo
Follow us: @ArchaeoNewsNet on Twitter | groups/thearchaeologynewsnetwork/ on Facebook
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PostSubject: Marble mosaic floor revealed at Amphipolis tomb   Thu Sep 04, 2014 11:26 pm

Marble mosaic floor revealed at Amphipolis tomb


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 11:30 PM


 Excavation work at the site of Ancient Amphipolis, in central Macedonia, has revealed a mosaic of random while marble pieces against a red background, the Ministry of Culture has said. 














The floor section made of irregular pieces of white marble on red background is in  excellent condition and is located in the antechamber behind the wall with the two sphinxes  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


The mosaic, part of the tomb's floor, was uncovered after archeologists at the site removed debris from the antechamber and was said to be in very good condition. It lies behind the two headless and wingless seated sphinxes that guarded the tomb.


 The tomb dates between 325 B.C. – two years after the death of ancient Greek warrior-king Alexander the Great – and 300 B.C. Its discovery and a visit there by Greek Prime Minister Antonis Samaras have sparked extensive speculation on its contents.


 A hole in a marble wall concealing one or more inner chambers and signs of forced entry outside the huge barrel-vaulted structure suggest that the tomb was plundered long ago. The excavation will continue for weeks. Source: ekathimerini


 [September 01, 2014]




Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/09/marble-mosaic-floor-revealed-at.html#.VAkst_ldUlo
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PostSubject: Archaeologists find two ancient caryatids guarding tomb at Amphipolis   Sun Sep 07, 2014 6:59 pm


7 SEPTEMBER, 2014 - 23:43 APRILHOLLOWAY


Archaeologists find two ancient caryatids guarding tomb at Amphipolis

The Ministry of Culture in Greece has announced another spectacular find at the enigmatic Amphipolis burial monument in Northern Greece – two caryatids of exquisite beauty, carved from marble with traces of blue and red paint. Discovery News reports that the caryatids were found when a team of archaeologists led by Katerina Peristeri removed sandy soil in front of a sealing wall and found the two female sculptures stood between two marble pillars supporting a beam. The Ministry said that the presence of the caryatids supports the view that this is an “outstanding monument of particular importance.”


A caryatid is a sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on her head. The Greek term ‘karyatides’ translates to "maidens of Karyai", an ancient town of Peloponnese. Karyai had a famous temple dedicated to the goddess Artemis in her aspect of Artemis Karyatis. 


The caryatids found at Amphipolis, which are carved from Thassos marble, are wearing a sleeved tunic and earrings, and feature long, curly hair covering their shoulders. The right arm of the western caryatid and the left arm of the eastern one are both outstretched, as if to symbolically stop anyone attempting to enter the grave. The face of one of the sculptures survives almost intact, while the other one is missing.




Wearing a sleeved tunic and earrings, the Caryatids feature long, thick hair covering their shoulders. Credit: Ministry of Culture


In front of the Caryatids, there is a second sealing stone wall, 4.5 meters wide, following the technique of the entrance wall of the grave. It shows that the constructors of the tomb went to great effort to prevent anyone entering the grave.


Archaeologists also uncovered a perfectly preserved rectangular marble block, which measures 14 feet long and 3 feet wide, at the bottom of the vault.  On the underside of the large block, they found rosettes painted in blue, red, and yellow.  Andrew Chugg, author of “The Quest for the Tomb of Alexander the Great,” told Discovery New that the rosettes are similar to those found on the coffin from the tomb of Philip II, Alexander the Great’s father, suggesting that the tomb at Amphipolis may also belong to a relative of Alexander the Great.




A perfectly preserved rectangular marble block, measuring 14 feet long and 3 feet wide, was unearthed at the bottom of the barrel vault. Credit: Ministry of Culture




On the underside of the large marble block are traces of blue, red and yellow, representing panels with rosettes in the centre. Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture


Chugg’s hypothesis is that the most likely candidate for the tomb’s occupant is Olympia, Alexander the Great’s mother, or his wife, Roxane. He has even suggested that “a combination of the two is not unlikely”.  The two Macedonian queens both died at Amphipolis in the last quarter of the fourth century, which coincides with the dating of the tomb.


“The Caryatids are a truly spectacular find. The fact that we now have a second pair of sculpted female guardians is of course boosting the case for this being the tomb of an important queen,” Chugg said.


Featured image: One of the caryatides found in the Amphipolis tomb in Greece. Credit: Ministry of Culture.


By April Holloway

- See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/archaeologists-find-two-ancient-caryatids-guarding-tomb-amphipolis-002050#sthash.hROTJqfN.dpuf
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PostSubject: Seismic tomography of the Amphipolis tomb   Tue Sep 09, 2014 6:43 pm

Seismic tomography of the Amphipolis tomb


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 7:00 PM


 Seismic tomography was used at the ancient tomb of Amphipolis in 1998-1999 in order to image the area’s sub-surface characteristics and to understand its deep geological structure. The method was used by three geophycisists of the University of Patras – Lazaros Polymenakos, Stavros Papamarinopoulos and Athanasios Liosis – in collaboration with archaeologist Haido Koukouli-Chrysanthaki.






 The symbol “H” points “high velocity” where treasures are thought to lie  [Credit: University of Patras] 


The areas marked H on the tomography show the location where a number of constructions are located. The archaeologist believes that the marked areas may be of importance though this cannot be verified with absolute certainty.


 The geological study of the area was interrupted in 1999 due to lack of funds, however the results were published in Archaeological Prospection, a British journal for archaeology in 2004.


 First axonometric representation 


The first axonometric representation of the burial monument in Amphipolis was released today by the Ministry of Culture.






 An axonometric representation of the burial monument in Amphipolis  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


This representation was designed by the Ministry’s architect, M. Lefantzis, picturing the two diaphragm walls, on which the Sphinxes and the Caryatids are shown.


 The ministry’s announcement entailed:


 “Excavations are ongoing on the Kasta hill from the Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities Ephorate. The removal of sand dredging continues horizontally across the site’s surface between the septal wall with the Caryatids and the third wall, in order to achieve the balance of pressures and ensure the constant static design of the monument, according to the decisions of the interdisciplinary technical team.


 Today, the first axonometric design which represents the burial monument, designed by Ministry of Culture architect Mr. M. Lefantzis is presented. 


We also continue the documentation of archaeological excavations through digital and conventional means”. Source: Protothema [September 09, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/09/seismic-tomography-of-amphipolis-tomb.html#.VA-B2fmwLCc
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PostSubject: The Amphipolis caryatids revealed   Fri Sep 12, 2014 9:53 am

The Amphipolis caryatids revealed


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 8:00 PM


 Archaeologists working at the site of a vast ancient tomb in Amphipolis, northern Greece, on Thursday uncovered the bodies of two sculpted female figures, or caryatids, whose heads were unearthed over the weekend.


















 
These images released on Thursday, Sept. 11, 2014 by the Greek Culture Ministry show two  approximately life-sized female statues on a wall leading to a yet unexplored inner room  of a huge underground ancient tomb, in Amphipolis, northern Greece. The tomb dates  between 325 B.C.—two years before the death of ancient Greek warrior-king  Alexander the Great—and 300 BC [Credit: Culture Ministry] 


The life-sized marble statues flank the entrance to one of the tomb’s underground chambers which archaeologists are carefully exploring. 


According to a Culture Ministry statement issued on Thursday, the statues are of “exceptional artistic quality.”


 Archaeologists have also unearthed three architrave (epistyle) pieces, about 80 cm to 1 meter long and 15 cm of height after the second wall behind the caryatids.


 The findings, bearing traces of blue and red colour, were transferred to the Amphipolis Archaeological Museum. According to Culture ministry sources, there are more unscathed architraves in the antechamber. 


The Amphipolis excavation has fueled intense media attention as the site dates to the era of Alexander the Great’s death and some archaeologists have suggested relatives of the warrior king might be buried there. 


Source: ekathimerini [September 11, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/09/the-amphipolis-caryatids-revealed.html#.VBL59_mwLCc
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PostSubject: Tomb of Alexander the Great already found, archaeologist claims, but findings have been blocked by ‘diplomatic intervention’   Sat Sep 13, 2014 1:45 pm




13 SEPTEMBER, 2014 - 13:51 JOHNBLACK

Tomb of Alexander the Great already found, archaeologist claims, but findings have been blocked by ‘diplomatic intervention’


The worldwide media is currently amass with news stories about the exciting discovery of an enormous tomb in Amphipolis, Greece, and speculation has been mounting that it may belong to Alexander the...


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PostSubject: Archaeologists access third chamber of Amphipolis tomb   Sun Sep 14, 2014 8:24 am

Archaeologists access third chamber of Amphipolis tomb 


Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 11:00 PM 


Archaeologists working at the site of Amphipolis, northern Greece, on Friday gained access to the third chamber of the massive tomb.






 According to an announcement, the soil removal behind the diaphragmatic wall with the  caryatids has reached three meters from the floor. After the removal appeared the upper part  of the third diaphragmatic wall that revealed a well elaborated marble Ionic style  lintel as the other architectural parts of the area [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 The site workers entered the chamber after removing a large volume of earth behind a wall bearing the two sculpted female figures, or caryatids, that were uncovered over the weekend. 


According to a Culture Ministry statement issued on Thursday, the statues are of “exceptional artistic quality.”






 In comments to reporters on Friday, the ministry's general secretary Lina Mendoni described Greece's "cultural reserves" as "a massive power" for the country.


 The Amphipolis excavation has fueled intense media attention as the site dates to the era of Alexander the Great’s death and some archaeologists have suggested relatives of the warrior king might be buried ther Source: 


ekathimerini [September 12. 2014]

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at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/09/archaeologists-access-third-chamber-of.html
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PostSubject: Re: Inside the antechamber of the Amphipolis tomb    Tue Sep 16, 2014 8:09 am

Third chamber at Amphipolis tomb deemed unstable 


Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 5:00 PM 


Archaeologists entering the third chamber of the ancient tomb at Amphipolis are facing problems with the structural integrity of the third chamber, such as around the marble pillars where a visible portion of the vertical walls have detached from the main structure, according to the Ministry of Culture.


 


The inner dome is made of limestone as in the previous chambers [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


The Ministry of Culture stated in a press release that members of the scientific team entered the third chamber from the existing hole in the third sealing wall in order to document and determine the structural integrity inside so as to implement the necessary support measures. 






The dome appears on the verge of caving ins [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 The site observation revealed that the level of sandy soil is lower than at the previous two chambers and natural sediments containing shell fossils from the natural terrain were found.  






The dome structure is weakened as a result of having lost a great deal of mass [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


They found that the arched dome of the third chamber is on the verge of collapse, showing deep and extensive cracks on either side. The detached sections are believed to be the result of immense pressure to the structure, possibly due to the tall embankments on either side of the dome. In particular, the southern part of the chamber is burdened by terrain 2 metres in height and 12 to 13 metres in the northern section. 






The inner portion of the lintel [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


Inside, the arched dome is constructed of limestone, like the previous two chambers. There is a repeated pattern on the visible part of the three vertical walls to the east, west and north. Similar to the previous two chambers, there are pillars with a crowned ionic architrave. 






The limestone covering is coated with red paint  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


The visible part of the south wall on the right and left of the door frames shows that marble lining continues, with the overlying limestone covered with red paint. The inner portion of the lintel has fallen.






 Axonometric view of the Amphipolis tomb revealed thus far  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


The debris is being removed slowly and systematically to ensure that the dome does not collapse. Source: Greek Ministry of Culture [September 15, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/09/third-chamber-at-amphipolis-deemed.html
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PostSubject: Fourth chamber likely at Amphipolis tomb   Sun Sep 21, 2014 9:00 am

Fourth chamber likely at Amphipolis tomb


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 7:00 PM 


A high-ranking Ministry of Culture official told Greek news sources that the archaeologists who are currently clearing out the dirt from the third chamber in the Amphipolis tomb believe that a fourth chamber may exist. 






Meanwhile, the head of the excavation Katerina Peristeri told journalists that based on the findings so far, she believes the enigmatic tomb definitely dates back to the last quarter of the 4th century B.C. 


Mrs. Peristeri complained about colleagues who appear in the media claiming that the tomb may have been constructed in the Roman era.


 “The tomb is Macedonian. We have all the proof for that." said Mrs. Peristeri. "It’s futile for some people to say that it is Roman. I feel indignation against some colleagues of mine that speak to the TV channels, just for 5 minutes on prime time TV without knowing anything about the excavation.”


 The archaeologist stressed that the excavation will not just benefit archaeology, but the country itself and praised the efforts of her associates in the dig.


 Regarding the progress of the excavation, the archaeologists have removed two rows of stones on the wall that was in front of the caryatid statues and continue to remove dirt from the tomb.


 Mrs. Peristeri noted that further structural support work is being carried out in the second chamber.


 As to whether the tomb has been plundered or not, it appears that attempts to raid the first two chambers may have occurred in Roman times, but the third chamber appears to be intact. Source: To Vima [September 19, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/09/fourth-chamber-likely-at-amphipolis-tomb.html#.VB7LV_mwLCc
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PostSubject: Did British soldiers plunder Amphipolis Tomb in 1916?   Mon Sep 22, 2014 9:43 am




22 SEPTEMBER, 2014 - 02:01 APRILHOLLOWAY

Did British soldiers plunder Amphipolis Tomb in 1916?

A photograph has emerged depicting soldiers from a regiment of the British Army, proudly holding skulls found around the Amphipolis Tomb in Greece, raising questions about whether they may have plundered the tomb nearly a century ago.


The King's Shropshire Light Infantry (KSLI), a regiment of the British Army formed in 1881, was posted to Thessalonika in Greece in 1915 at the request of the Greek Prime Minister and spent nearly three years fighting the Bulgarians in Macedonia. For the most part, they were based on the Struma front between Lake Doiran and Amphipolis, where they constructed trenches and dugouts and fought numerous skirmishes. However, it seems the battalion did more than just fighting, as photographs have emerged showing evidence of the soldiers entering the famous tomb at Amphipolis, as well as proudly showing off human remains found at the site.


It is already known that the spectacular Lion of Amphipolis, a 5.3 metre-high marble statue that once stood on top of the giant tomb of Amphipolis, was found by British soldiers who were building fortifications at the bridge of Amphipolis in 1916.  The British tried to smuggle the marble parts to England, but their efforts were thwarted when Bulgarians who had just seized Paggaion attacked them. Archaeologist Fotis Petsas, whose work on the history of the Lion of Amphipolis was published in 1976 in "Proodos" newspaper that circulated in Serres, wrote:


"During the Balkan War in 1913, Greek soldiers found the foundations of the pedestal of the monument while digging trenches. The foundations were examined by George Ikonomos and Anastasios Orlandos who subsequently became professors of archaeology. Later, in 1916, during World War I, British soldiers discovered the first parts of the marble lion. Their attempt to transport the pieces onboard a ship were thwarted by an enemy bombing."




The marble statue of the Lion of Amphipolis. Image source: Wikipedia


When archaeologists entered the second chamber of the Amphipolis tomb last month, they found that the marble wall sealing off the third chamber had already been smashed open in one corner, leading researchers to believe that the tomb may have been looted in antiquity. However, the plundering may not have occurred in the ancient past, but by the British soldiers in WWI.


When archaeologists entered the second chamber, they discovered that the wall sealing off the third chamber had been smashed in one corner. Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture


A little digging around on the website of the British Museum has revealed a little more to the story.  The biography page for Dr Eric Gardner (1877 – 1951), a British medic and amateur archaeologist, who was posted to Greece during WWI, reveals that he took treasures found at Amphipolis and ‘donated’ them to the British Museum. The British Museum writes: “He was based around Amphipolis on the Struma front, where an Archaic-Hellenistic Greek cemetery was uncovered. Donated contents of an Amphipolis grave to the Museum in 1918.”  So was this ‘Amphipolis grave’ the great tomb that is currently being excavated by archaeologists?


Top Left: Gold mouth piece with repoussé decoration. Top Right: Bronze spiral finger-ring. Bottom: Silver plaque with dotted repoussé decoration. All excavated from Amphipolis grave, 6th century BC. Given to British Museum by Dr Eric Gardner in 1918. Photo Credit: Trustees of the British Museum


Within the grave, Dr Gardner found a hoard of treasures including gold, silver, and bronze jewellery, finely crafted pottery, a metal hair pin, an iron knife, and a spearhead. It is not known how much he kept for himself, but nine of these items now sit inside the British Museum in London. It is curious to say the least, that in the midst of the media frenzy regarding the current excavation of the enormous tomb at Amphipolis, the British Museum has remained deafly silent on the issue.


 Perhaps they are afraid of another ‘Elgin Marbles’ scenario in which the world petitions them to return stolen goods to their origin.


Featured image: Officers of the 2nd King's Shropshire Light Infantry with skulls excavated during the construction of trenches and dugouts at the ancient Greek site of Amphipolis, 1916. Image source: Ministry of Information First World War Official Collection


Sources:


The King's Shropshire Light Infantry, 1914 – 1918 – Shropshire Regimental Museum

King's Shropshire Light Infantry – Wikipedia

Salonika – The Long Lost Trail: The British Army of 1914 – 1918

Dr Eric Gardner – The British Museum

The Bulgarian army prevented the Lion of Amphipolis from being taken to England – GR  Reporter


By April Holloway

- See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/did-british-soldiers-plunder-amphipolis-tomb-1916-002097#sthash.ZJnjELb7.dpuf
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PostSubject: New photos of Amphipolis Caryatids released   Mon Sep 22, 2014 11:09 pm

New photos of Amphipolis Caryatids released 


Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 5:00 PM 


The two caryatids found at the Kasta Tomb in ancient Amphipolis were uncovered entirely by excavators, the ministry of Culture announced on Sunday. 






The Caryatids wear a long chiton and long fringed robe with rich folds  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 The full height of each caryatid is 2.27 metres and they are wearing chitons - or full-length draped dresses, tied in the middle - and a long himation, or a shawl-like cover over their dress, with fringes and several folds.








 


Both wear kothornoi shoes, which are decorated with red and yellow colour, and the toes  of their feet have been rendered with great detail [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


They are wearing kothornoi, resembling platform boots or shoes and best known for being worn by ancient Greek actors. Their shoes preserve traces of red and yellow pigments, while their toes are depicted in very fine detail.






 Both stand on a marble pedestals [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 The bases they stand on have not been fully cleared. They are 1.33 metres in length and 0.68 metres in width, and their height has been uncovered to about 0.30 metres. The two bases are 1.68 metres apart from each other. Sections of the caryatids' arms were found near them. 






In the continuing excavation, there is evidence of yet another room lying beyond them. According to the ministry, oxygen and monoxide measurements inside the chamber are at normal levels, with a high humidity index (87%) and temperature ranging between 21.5C and 22.70C. 


Support and other technical work is continuing. Source: NewsBomb [September 21, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/09/new-photos-of-amphipolis-caryatids.html#.VCDiTvmwLCc
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PostSubject: Fourth chamber may hold key to Amphipolis riddle   Wed Sep 24, 2014 11:02 pm

Fourth chamber may hold key to Amphipolis riddle 


Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 11:00 PM 


What appears to be a third doorway has been discovered at the Kasta mound at ancient Amphipolis after random checks were carried out at specific points of the north wall of the third chamber.






 The newly discovered doorway in the third chamber of the Kasta mound at Amphipolis,   which seems to lead to a lower level [Credit: Protothema] 


The newly discovered doorway measures only 0.96 metres in width and is therefore considerably smaller than those preceding it.


 It seems quite likely that the third entrance, which is not centred in the fourth wall but is shifted towards the left, leads, possibly via a stairway, to a lower level.






 Cross-section of the Kasta mound at Amphipolis showing the progress  of the excavation to date [Credit: Protothema]


 This new finding confirms lead archaeologist Katerina Peristeri’s inference that the road to the main burial chamber will be a long one.






 Axonometric view of the first three chambers of the Kasta mound at Amphipolis  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


Statements made by the Ministry of Culture are carefully worded. The fourth wall, for example, is not referred to as a “diaphragmatic” wall as in previous announcements but as the “north wall of the third area”. 






Scaffolding used to stabilize the second chamber of the Kasta mound at Amphipolis [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 The opening or 'hole' in the upper right section of the fourth wall appears to have been dislodged by natural causes, probably a seismic event. This element is critical, as Mrs. Katerina Peristeri conviction that the tomb hasn’t been robbed seems to prevail.


 Meanwhile, archaeologists are busy with the work of stabilizing and clearing the second chamber. Source: Greek Ministry of Culture [September 23, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/09/fourth-chamber-may-hold-key-to.html#.VCOEkfldUlo
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PostSubject: Amphipolis 'Caryatids' hint Olympias may lie within   Fri Sep 26, 2014 10:19 am

Amphipolis 'Caryatids' hint Olympias may lie within


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 3:30 PM 


The gentle female sculptures found in the massive burial complex at the Kasta Hill site at Amphipolis, Greece, might depict priestess who took part in orgies and ecstatic rites while scaring men away with snake-filled baskets, according to a new interpretation of the finely carved statues. If true, some scholars argue the tomb would belong to the mother of Alexander the Great.






 The left-hand caryatid in the vestibule of the tomb at Amphipolis  [Credit: 


Greek Ministry of Culture] The sculptures represent Orphic revelers and priestesses of Dionysus, says Andrew Chugg, author of The Quest for the Tomb of Alexander the Great. 


Technically known as caryatids -- pillars formed from sculptures of female figures common in Greek and Roman architecture -- the statues were unearthed in a mysterious massive burial mound in Greece's northeastern Macedonia region after archaeologists had already entered a chamber guarded by two colossal headless and wingless sphinxes. 


According to team leader Katerina Peristeri, the structure dates to between 325 B.C. -- two years before Alexander the Great's death -- and 300 B.C.


 Flanking a marble doorway, the curly haired female statues stand more than seven feet tall on a marble pedestal wearing thick soled shoes, their alternated arms outstretched as if to symbolically bar intruders from entering the chamber.






 The Caryatids wear a long chiton and long fringed robe with rich folds  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 "These female sculptures may specifically be Klodones, priestesses of Dionysus with whom Olympias, Alexander the Great's mother, consorted," Chugg told Discovery News. "This is because the baskets they wear on their heads are sacred to Dionysus." 


Chugg considers Olympias as the person most likely buried in the magnificent tomb. 


"In his 'Life of Alexander,' the Greek historian Plutarch wrote how Olympias used to participate in Dionysiac rites and orgies with these Klodones," Chugg said. 


Specifically, the Greek historian and biographer recounted that the mystical baskets were used to hold Olympias' pet snakes, which would rear their heads out of the baskets, terrifying the male participants in the Dionysiac rites and orgies.


 "I have discovered there are Roman copies of a 4th-Century B.C. statue of Dionysus in both the Hermitage and Metropolitan museums with an accompanying figure of a priestess, who is dressed very similarly to the Amphipolis caryatids, including the 'platform shoes,'" Chugg said.






 A 1st century BC caryatid from Tralles (Aydin) in Turkey  [Credit: Istanbul Archaeological Museum] 


On the assumption that the Amphipolis tomb is that of Olympias, "the explanation for the caryatids would be they represent those Klodones that shared in Dionysiac orgies with the queen whose tomb they guard," Chugg said.


 At 1,600 feet wide, the Kasta Hill mound is regarded as the largest burial site ever discovered in Greece. Hopes in the country are now high for an extraordinary find that might boost the country's economy after six years of recession and austerity. 


"We are watching in awe and with deep emotion the excavation in Amphipolis," Greek Culture Minister Konstantinos Tasoulas told the BBC.


 "The most beautiful secrets are hidden right underneath our feet," he said.






 Scenes from the throne of Eurydice I, the grandmother of Alexander the Great,  featuring sphinxes and Caryatids [Credit: Archaeological Museum Vergina]


 As the excavation began, basically revealing a long vaulted corridor, hopes grew the mysterious mound could be this century's tomb of Tutankhamun. 


It emerged the structure, which originally was crowned by an impressive 16-foot-tall marble lion statue, was embellished in its underground space with colossal sculptures.


 Two headless and wingless seated sphinxes, standing nearly 5 feet high and weighting about 1.5 tons each, guard the entrance, while two magnificent caryatids flank a second marble doorway.


 So, who were these colossal sentinel statues protecting? Who is buried in the Amphipolis tomb? Author: Rossella Lorenzi | Source: Discovery News [September 24, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/09/amphipolis-caryatids-hint-olympias-may.html#.VCVzYfldUlo
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PostSubject: The Amphipolis Caryatids fully excavated    Wed Oct 01, 2014 9:45 pm

The Amphipolis Caryatids fully excavated 


Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 7:00 PM 


The marble pedestals on which the two Caryatids of the Amphipolis burial mound stand were fully revealed after the two last blocks of the sealing wall in front of the second diaphragmatic wall were removed.






 The decoration of the pedestals follows the marble revetment of the walls. Each pedestal’s height is 1.40m (4.59 feet), their width 1.36m (4.46 feet) and their depth 0.72m (2.36 feet). 






The total height of pedestal and statue is an imposing 3.67m (12 feet). The floor of the second chamber is raised by seven centimetres compared to that of the first and appears to have traces of blue pigment on its surface.






 The 28th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities has continued the excavation works, led by archaeologist Katerina Peristeri, removing debris up to 1.5m in depth and revealing the rest of the marble revetment of the walls, as in the previously unearthed chamber, and a large section of the Ionic style door frame leading to the third chamber.


 Buttressing works have been completed in the first chamber and carried on in the second and third one.  Source: The Greek Ministry of Culture [September 30, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/09/the-amphipolis-caryatids-fully-excavated.html#.VCytAfldUlo
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PostSubject: Marble door found in third chamber at Amphipolis   Fri Oct 03, 2014 9:17 pm

Marble door found in third chamber at Amphipolis


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 9:00 PM 


Three fragments of a marble door were found in the entrance of the third diaphragmatic wall that leads to the third chamber of the Kasta mound at Amphipolis. A pivot stone and several bronze and iron nails were also unearthed.






 Fragment of the marble door adorned with studs  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 "These findings reinforce the position that this is a Macedonian tomb", said archaeologist and head of the excavation, Katerina Peristeri.


 Ms. Peristeri added: "The collapse of the marble door was caused either by Bulgarian artillery shells in 1913 or by an earthquake of magnitude 6.8 on the Richter scale that occurred in the sixth century AD or possibly from earthquakes that struck the area in the 19th century. At the same time, however, we cannot rule out the likelihood that the damage was caused by looters. Only further excavation will reveal this."






   Schematic of the Ionic style doorway, showing the marble door  and pivit stone [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


Ms. Anna Panagiotarea, acting director of the Amphipolis Museum, provided the following details: 


1. "With the removal of soil, yesterday sections of a marble door were revealed, a typical form of Macedonian tombs. In other words, we have a door made of marble from Aliki on Thasos - the same marble from which the entire burial complex is made - adorned with 'studs' imitating heads of nails.  a common feature of wooden doors." 


2. "A pivot stone - that is, the point where the door hangs from the anta - was found on the western side of the doorway."






 Scaffolding now props-up two-thirds of the second chamber's domed ceiling  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 3. "I remind you of the size of the openings: those of the Caryatids and Sphinxes is exactly 1.67m. whereas the opening of the third doorway is 1.50m." 


4. "During the excavations, the rest of the side walls also came to light and which comprised of marble revetments like those found throughout the monument."


 5. "During the excavation we also found, both in front of the doorway and behind the Caryatids, several bronze and iron nails. We stress that these were found yesterday and do not necessarily derive from the funerary bier or coffin." Source: The Greek Ministry of Culture [October 02, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/10/marble-door-found-in-third-chamber-at.html#.VC9JbfldUlo

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PostSubject: Large mosaic uncovered at Amphipolis Tomb   Sun Oct 12, 2014 5:06 pm

Large mosaic uncovered at Amphipolis Tomb 


Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 6:00 PM


 Archaeologists digging through a vast ancient tomb in Amphipolis in northern Greece have uncovered a floor mosaic that covers the whole area of a room seen as the antechamber to the main burial ground. 












The main scene depicts a chariot in motion, drawn by two white horses, which is driven  by a bearded man with a laurel wreath on his head. In front of the chariot is the god Hermes  as psychopomp conducting the soul of the deceased, wearing a petasos or 'sun-hat', cloak  and winged sandals and holding caduceus [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


The mosaic, 3 metres (10 feet) long and 4.5 metres (15 feet) wide, depicts a horseman with a laurel wreath driving a chariot drawn by two horses and preceded by the god Hermes. According to the ministry of culture announcement made Sunday, Hermes is depicted here as the conductor of souls to the afterlife.






 
A limestone threshold covered with white plaster was revealed at the southern  section of the mosaic floor, up to and between the bases of the Caryatids  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


The mosaic is made up of pebbles in many colors: white, black, gray, blue, red and yellow. A circular part, near the center of the mosaic, is missing, but authorities say enough fragments have been found to reconstruct a large part.


 The mosaic is dated along with the tomb to the last quarter of the 4th century BC. Source: Associated Press [October 12, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/10/large-mosaic-uncovered-at-amphipolis.html#.VDrsO_ldUlo
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PostSubject: Ancient Greece 3D - Tomb of Amphipolis, Greece - HD   Tue Oct 14, 2014 12:13 pm

Ancient Greece 3D - Tomb of Amphipolis, Greece - HD

Published on Oct 10, 2014

Three-dimensional model of the Amphipolis Tomb whose excavation is in progress...





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PostSubject: Amphipolis mosaic portrays Abduction of Persephone   Fri Oct 17, 2014 9:05 am

Amphipolis mosaic portrays Abduction of Persephone


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 6:00 PM


 Greek archaeologists clearing dirt from the stunning mosaic floor at the burial mound complex at Amphipolis in northern Greece have revealed a third character in the mosaic composition that confirms the scene depicts the Abduction of Persephone.






 The mosaic on the floor of the Greek tomb shows Persephone,  daughter of Zeus and Demeter, as she is abducted by Pluto  [Credit: Greece Ministry of Culture]


 According to a statement of Greece's Culture Ministry on Thursday, the third character in the scene is Persephone, the daughter of Zeus and Demeter and the goddess of agriculture and fertility.


 In the mural, which is made up of pebbles in colors that include white, black, grey, blue, red and yellow, Persephone is shown in a white tunic with her hand raised in fear.






 Persephone, detail [Credit: Greece Ministry of Culture]


 "It is obvious this is the mythological representation of the abduction of Persephone by Pluto," the Greek ministry said.


 The mosaic scene is now clear: wearing a yellow robe, Hermes, the soul guide, is leading with his winged sandals a chariot. This is pulled by two white horses and driven by a bearded man wearing a laurel wreath on his head and a red robe.








 The mosaic at Amphipolis, like the mural from the Royal Tombs at Aigai,  portrays the Abduction of Persephone by Pluto to the Underworld   [Credit: Greece Ministry of Culture] 


Although it was initially speculated that the bearded man depicted the deceased interred in the tomb, the scene suggests the bearded character is Pluto, the Lord of the Underworld, who kidnapped Persephone, according to Greek mythology.


 The depiction of the abduction of Persephone in the mosaic floor directly links the Amphipolis tomb to tombs in Vergina (Aigai), Greece. A mural representing the same scene was discovered in the royal cemetery of these tombs, where King Philip II, Alexander the Great's father, is buried.


 Editor's Note:  It is therefore almost certain that the tomb belongs to a member of the royal Timenidae family of Macedonia or to one of the senior officials connected with the dynasty.


 Author: Rossella Lorenzi | Source: Discovery News [October 16, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/10/amphipolis-mosaic-portrays-abduction-of.html
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PostSubject: New mosaic revelations strongly suggest occupant of Amphipolis tomb is Macedonian Royal   Fri Oct 17, 2014 7:00 pm


17 OCTOBER, 2014 - 23:32 APRILHOLLOWAY
New mosaic revelations strongly suggest occupant of Amphipolis tomb is Macedonian Royal

Archaeologists working in the Amphipolis tomb in northern Greece have uncovered a new section of the stunning mosaic uncovered last week, which covers the entire floor space in the second chamber. They have now exposed a third character in the mosaic composition, which confirms that the scene depicts the Abduction of Persephone. The Greek Ministry of Culture has announced that this new information gives them great certainty that the occupant of the tomb is a member of the Macedonian royal family, ruling out theories that it may belong to an admiral or general that served in Alexander the Great’s army.  


The enormous mosaic, which covers the entire floor of the second chamber and measures 14.7-foot wide (4.5m) by 9.8-foot long (3m), is made with white, black, grey, blue, red, and yellow pebbles. When the mural was first uncovered last week, archaeologists could see that it depicts a chariot with two horses led by the god Hermes, and with an unknown bearded man in the driver’s seat.


Amphipolis Tomb by Greektoys.org (update) by Greektoys.org on Sketchfab
New interaction display of the Amphipolis tomb showing the mosaic on the floor of the second chamber. Credit: Greektoys.org


The newly-exposed section revealed that the bearded man is holding a young woman in a white tunic with her hand raised in fear. The Greek Ministry said that the well-known scene is the mythological representation of Pluto’s abduction of Persephone, daughter of Zeus and Demeter and goddess of agriculture and fertility.


Homer describes Persephone as the formidable, venerable majestic queen of the underworld, who carries into effect the curses of men upon the souls of the dead. 


Persephone was abducted by Pluto, previously known as Hades, the god-king of the underworld. While Persephone is in the underworld, her mother mourns and refuses to allow crops to grow until she gets her daughter back again. Eventually, Zeus forces Pluto/Hades to return Persephone. He complies with the request, but first he tricked her, giving her some pomegranate seeds to eat. Persephone was released by the god Hermes, who had been sent to retrieve her, but because she had tasted food in the underworld, she was obliged to spend a third of each year (the winter months) there, and the remaining part of the year with the gods above. The myth of her abduction represents her function as the personification of vegetation, which shoots forth in spring and withdraws into the earth after harvest.



Oil painting of Hades abducting Persephone, 18th century (Wikipedia)


The depiction of the abduction of Persephone in the mosaic floor directly links the Amphipolis tomb to the Macedonian Royal family.  A mural representing the same scene was discovered in the royal cemetery of these tombs, where King Philip II, Alexander the Great's father, is buried.


“We find the scene of the rapture of Persephone in the mural of the tomb of Persephone, in the royal cemetery at Vergina, Greece. We also have a second display of God Pluto with Persephone, in a scene of a holy marriage, on the backrest of the marble throne, in the tomb of Eurydice, mother of Philip in Aeges,” said lead archaeologist Katerina Peristeri in a recent press conference. “Both scenes are connected with the cults of the underworld, with the cult of Orpheus – descent into Hades – as well as with the cult of Dionysus. Each head of the house of Macedonia was a high priest of these cults… the scene presented in our case has a symbolic meaning, which could denote some kind of relationship of the person buried in the tomb to the Macedonian royal family. The political symbolism is very strong in all eras in Greece.”




Mural depiction the abduction of Persephone from the tomb of Philip II, father of Alexander the Great, in Vergina, Greece. (Wikimedia Commons)


Although there are many theories regarding the tomb’s occupant, the most well-supported theory to date is that it belongs to Alexander the Great’s mother, Olympias. The caryatids – sculpted female figures serving as architectural supports - represent Orphic priestesses (Klodones) of Dionysus who took part in sacred rites. Olympias was a passionate devotee of Dionysus and used to participate in Dionysiac rites with the Klodones, in which the mystical baskets, like those seen on the heads of the caryatids, were used to hold Olympias' pet snakes, which would terrify the male participants in the Dionysiac rites. Now the newly discovered mosaic also connects the tomb’s owner with the cult of Dionysus.  Whether this theory is correct or not, remains to be seen.


Featured image: Newly-exposed mural in the Amphipolis tomb depicting the abduction of Persephone. Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture


By April Holloway

- See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/new-mosaic-revelations-strongly-suggest-occupant-amphipolis-tomb-macedonian#sthash.YGxQARV5.dpuf
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PostSubject: Amphipolis Tomb Documentary 1956-2014 - Alexander The Great last resting palace   Fri Oct 17, 2014 7:02 pm

Amphipolis Tomb Documentary 1956-2014 - Alexander The Great last resting palace



Published on Sep 30, 2014

Amphipolis Tomb Documentary 1956-2014 - Alexander The Great last resting palace

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PostSubject: Missing Amphipolis sphinx head discovered   Tue Oct 21, 2014 11:13 pm

Missing Amphipolis sphinx head discovered


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 8:00 PM


 Another amazing discovery has surfaced on the Amphipolis dig, Greece. The missing head of the Sphinx “guarding” the tomb’s entrance was finally discovered inside the third chamber.






 The Sphinx’s head is intact, with minimal breakage on the nose. It has a height of 0.60m and it is assigned to the body of the eastern Sphinx. Made of marble, the head has signs of red color on its curly hair (falling onto its left shoulder) that is tied with a white stripe. 








It carries a pole and archaeologists characterize it as a sculpture of exceptional art. The head was found in a depth of 15cm inside a marble threshold. In addition, fragments of the Sphinx’s wings were discovered in the same chamber. 






In a press release, the Greek Culture Ministry underlined that the excavation is in full progress, having reached the entire surface of the third chamber (4.5m x 6m) in a depth of 5.20m from the tomb’s top. In the coming days, archaeologists have scheduled the removal of fallen limestones from the third tomb chamber’s interior and parts of a newly uncovered gate will be revealed.


 Author: Aggelos Skordas | Source: The Greek Reporter [October 21, 2014]

Read more at:



 http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/10/missing-amphipolis-sphinx-head.html#.VEcftfldUlo
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PostSubject: Missing head of Amphipolis sphinx found   Wed Oct 22, 2014 7:36 am

Missing head of Amphipolis sphinx found


October 21st, 2014



The hits just keep on coming at the Amphipolis tomb excavation. Archaeologists have crossed from the second chamber with the Persephone mosaic floor over the threshold into the third chamber. Lying just six inches on the other side of the marble threshold they found thedecapitated head of one of the sphinxes that stands guard in the tomb’s entryway. There is some damage to the nose and lips, but otherwise the head is remarkably intact.


The head is about 24 inches high and depicts the serene visage of a beautiful woman. Her hair is long and wavy, falling over the left shoulder and tied around the head with a white band. Traces of red paint are visible to the naked eye in her hair. She has a column or pillar on her head, a shorter version of the architectural support the caryatids in chamber two sport on their heads, that would have abutted the stone arch at the entry. It’s a tight fit. At a glance, I’m not entirely persuaded that the head really does fit the sphinx — if you look at a photomontage the proportions seem off — but it’s impossible to draw any conclusions from images alone, so I’ll defer to the archaeologists on the ground.


The entire neck is still there, including the join area where it was ostensibly broken off the sphinx’s body. It could match the breaking point on the trunk of the eastern sphinx. Additional fragments of the wings of the sphinxes were also discovered around the head. How these pieces got inside the tomb especially in such great condition is a mystery. It seems too preservative to be vandalism, and why would a looter bother to move a head and wing fragments to the comparative safety of the interior?


Besides the head, archaeologists discovered the northern section of the marble threshold which is seven feet long and more than five wide. Dug into the marble are two deep curved depressions that experts believe once held metal rails that facilitated the movement of the heavy marble doors. The western wing of the door was also found, broken in two pieces. Limestone flooring is extant on both sides of the threshold. On the east side the wall intersecting with the floor appears to have collapsed. The west side of the floor has been damaged by falling blocks of limestone.

Those blocks will be removed over the next few days, clearing the way for archaeologists to continue the excavation of the third chamber, shoring up the roof and walls as they go, as they head towards the entry to the fourth chamber.




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PostSubject: Re: Inside the antechamber of the Amphipolis tomb    Tue Oct 28, 2014 11:05 pm

Amphipolis dig shows no doorway to fourth chamber

 Posted by TANN ArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 8:00 PM

 Indications that a huge tomb being excavated in Ancient Amphipolis, northern Greece, could have a doorway leading to a fourth chamber have not been confirmed by the dig, the Culture Ministry’s general secretary Lina Mendoni said on Tuesday.



 

Amphipolis dig shows no doorway to fourth chamber Amphipolis dig shows no doorway to fourth chamber Amphipolis dig shows no doorway to fourth chamber Amphipolis dig shows no doorway to fourth chamber



Fragments of the recovered wings from the Sphinxes and restored view of the tomb's entrance [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]

 Archaeologists working in the tomb’s third chamber thought a gap in the wall could lead to a fourth vault but the dig revealed a marble block had been removed from the spot, Mendoni said.



 Meanwhile authorities released a video showing details of the third chamber’s intricate mosaic floor and photos of the wings of marble sphinxes found on the site. The discovery of the fragments mean the sphinxes can restored, the ministry said. Source: Kathimerini [October 28, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/10/amphipolis-dig-shows-no-doorway-to.html#.VFBYN8nzijY
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PostSubject: Ancient Greece 3D - Tomb of Amphipolis: Comparison with great ancient monuments -HD   Fri Oct 31, 2014 12:46 pm

Ancient Greece 3D - Tomb of Amphipolis: Comparison with great ancient monuments -HD



Published on Oct 30, 2014

See how the tomb of Amphipolis compares in size with the Parthenon, the Egyptian Sphinx and the Taj Mahal!

Check the interior of the tomb in its current state with the sphinxs, the caryatids and the fabulous mosaic floor. The excavation is still in progress...

We hope you will enjoy this as much as we do.
Don't forget to turn your speakers on ;-)

3D model & animation: Apostolis Theonas, Panagiotis Stamatopoulos
Music: Great Drama by Cyril Nikitin

We are not a professional company...we are just a few Greek friends that wanted to share their passion about this great ancient monument with the rest of the world...Enjoy!

In memory of Spyros G.

For any information please contact us on ancientgreece3d@gmail.com


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PostSubject: Re: Inside the antechamber of the Amphipolis tomb    Fri Oct 31, 2014 4:19 pm

Thanks so much CZ for taking the time to bring all this here.


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PostSubject: Underground 'vault' found at Amphipolis tomb   Sat Nov 01, 2014 10:21 pm

Underground 'vault' found at Amphipolis tomb

 Posted by TANN ArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 6:00 PM

 Archaeologists digging at a tomb dating to the era of Alexander the Great in ancient Amphipolis in northern Greece have unearthed an underground vault, the country's Culture Ministry said Friday.



 

Underground 'vault' found at Amphipolis tomb Underground 'vault' found at Amphipolis tomb Underground 'vault' found at Amphipolis tomb A second, well preserved marble door leaf was found inside the trench [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]

The vault, which was discovered in the third chamber of the enigmatic tomb, measures 4 by 2.1 meters, the ministry said.

Archaeologists also uncovered the remains of a marble door, it said. Authorities earlier this week admitted that indications that the tomb could have a gateway leading to a fourth chamber had not been confirmed by the dig.

 Source: Kathimerini [October 31, 2014]


Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/10/underground-vault-found-at-amphipolis.html#.VFWUiMnzijY
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PostSubject: Hunt for fourth chamber at Amphipolis continues   Fri Nov 07, 2014 12:05 am

Hunt for fourth chamber at Amphipolis continues


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 6:00 PM 


The excavation in the third chamber of the burial monument at Kasta Tomb continues with great care, under adverse conditions due to the cold and humidity inside the third compartment of the tomb.






 Among the discoveries in the ancient tomb at the Kasta burial mound at Amphipolis,  is the head of of one of the sphinxes standing guard at the tomb's entrance [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 Although the archaeologists have already worked their way 8 metres down, there is no indication yet of the exact height of the chamber.


 In regard to the new findings, according to information, there is nothing more than fragments of limestone blocks from the so-called “sealing floor.” So far there is no trace of organic (ash or bone) or inorganic (sarcophagus, urn, etc) findings.


 As the excavation proceeds carefully at the point of the large artificial trench in the third chamber, the need for more and better supports is becoming increasingly pressing and the dense shoring, stronger than in the previous chambers, is taking up much of the team’s time.


 The research continues in the hope that clues will be found that will contribute in the identification of the person for whom this majestic monument was built. 


However, many believe that only a few days remain until the first phase of the excavation concludes, as the environmental conditions inside the tomb indicate – humidity has reached 80% and the temperature is already below 10 degrees celsius. 


Source: Protothema [November 08, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/11/hunt-for-fourth-chamber-at-amphipolis.html#.VFxEPvnF_Qg

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PostSubject: New geophysical scan suggests labyrinth of tombs lies within Amphipolis burial mound   Sun Nov 09, 2014 9:45 am




9 NOVEMBER, 2014 - 12:05 APRILHOLLOWAY

New geophysical scan suggests labyrinth of tombs lies within ANew geophysical scans of the Kasta Hill burial mound at Amphipolis, conducted by the National University of Thessaloniki (AUTH) have yielded some incredible results, pointing to the presence of an extensive network of underground rooms and corridors that resemble a labyrinth. The findings suggest that there may be many more tombs within the tumulus.


The full results of the research, led by Gregory Tsokas, Professor of Applied Geophysics at AUTH, are due to be released in one or two weeks, but preliminary indications suggest there is a lot more than meets the eye in the Amphipolis mound in northern Greece. 





A marble wall surrounds the enormous Kasta Hill burial mound in Amphipolis.


According to Xrono Metro, the aim of the research is to update older measurements obtained by both the University of Patras and the Technological Educational Institute of Serres, by using the most up-to-date methods available to identify what lies beneath the tons of soil that make up Kasta Hill.


The geophysical research complements the work being carried out by the multi-disciplinary team of researchers appointed by the Ministry of Culture, as it may yield information that will be used to inform additional excavations within the burial mound. 





Archaeologists are busy excavating within the Amphipolis tomb. However, geophysical scans suggests there may be much than meets the eye within Kasta Hill. Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture.


Mr Tsokas has acknowledged that the high-tech scans are complicated by the sheer height of the burial mound, the density of the layers, and the ‘noise’ generated by natural phenomena, such as large rocks, which create a risk of giving an inaccurate image. The scientific team is therefore ensuring proper time is taken to fully analyze the readings and images. All measurements will be further processed in the Laboratory of Aristotle before publication of the complete results.




The area in red represents the tomb currently being excavated, while the rest of the image reflects what appear to be corridors and rooms in the rest of the mound, found through geophysical scanning. (amfipolinews)


If the images are what they seem (i.e. a man-made network of tunnels and rooms), we may be dealing with a complete necropolis, rather than a single tomb.


 Archaeologists are already calling Amphipolis the discovery of the decade, but there may be much more to come.


Featured image: Left: Aerial view of Kasta Hill (google maps). Right: Results of geophysical scan suggest a complex network of corridors and chambers lies within the burial mound (amfipolinews)


By April Holloway

- See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/new-geophysical-scan-suggests-labyrinth-tombs-amphipolis-012372#sthash.7hewNS2f.dpuf
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PostSubject: Re: Inside the antechamber of the Amphipolis tomb    Sun Nov 09, 2014 11:26 am

This has been a really interesting series. Thanks for keeping it updated, ColonelZ.


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PostSubject: Amphipolis mound handed over to geologists   Tue Nov 11, 2014 12:25 am

Amphipolis mound handed over to geologists


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 5:00 PM 






Hopes at Amphipolis are now pinned on what geologists will find as they geoscan the hill covering the ancient underground tomb or tombs. The Department of Geophysics of the University of Thessaloniki will perform an electrical tomography on Kasta Hill where the tomb is located. The ground is to be covered with cables and readings will be analysed by an algorithm created by scientsts of the lab under the direction of Grigoris Tsokas, Professor of Applied Geophysics.






Aerial view of the Kasta hill at Amphipolis [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


Geologists who had scanned the tomb in 1999 found at least two very promising locations for tombs  in the south and southwest of the hill with high density areas and possible structures that could be stone jars. Since that time methods and sensors have improved and geologists will be able to produce better resolutions. 


Discussions are currently taking place concerning how the geological investigation will take place and there are fears that certain areas of the hill are unsteady and a cavein could be disastrous. Huge amounts of soil have been subtracted from the tumulus hill and that, accompanied by erosion, could bring about a better result, though there is also an increased danger of the structure caving in.


 Dr. Orit Peleg Barkat of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem fears that there are already signs of unsteadiness. She states that a great deal of the interest in the case of the tomb isn’t just in the archaeological finds but in the occupant of the huge monument and there are hopes of finding that person’s remains. 


Source: Protothema [November 10, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/11/amphipolis-mound-handed-over-geologists.html#.VGGOpPnF_Qg

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PostSubject: BREAKING NEWS: Skeleton found inside Limestone Sarcophagus in Amphipolis Tomb   Wed Nov 12, 2014 9:47 am




12 NOVEMBER, 2014 - 12:39 APRILHOLLOWAY

BREAKING NEWS: Skeleton found inside Limestone Sarcophagus in Amphipolis Tomb

It is the moment that archaeologists and history buffs around the world have been waiting for; after months of intensive excavations within the Amphipolis tomb in northern Greece, and speculations regarding its owner, human remains have finally been discovered within a sarcophagus in a secret vault beneath the third chamber of the tomb.


The vault was discovered in the Amphipolis tomb earlier this month when archaeologists finished clearing away the debris from the floor of the third chamber. The vault, measuring 4 by 2.1 meters was sealed with limestone. 


According to an announcement on Mega TV News, after removing the limestone and digging down approximately 1.6 meters, researchers discovered a large limestone sarcophagus, measuring 3.2 by 1.6 meters.


Within the limestone box was a wooden coffin, which had been sealed with iron and bronze nails. Bone and glass decorative elements and skeletal remains were found both within and outside the wooden coffin.




The limestone sarcophagus found in a secret vault beneath the third chamber of the Amphipolis tombCredit: ANA-MPA


The Ministry of Culture in Greece announced that the hidden burial compound in the Amphipolis tomb provides further evidence that the deceased was a prominent figure. The remains will now be examined by specialist scientists in an attempt to unravel its identity.


All evidence uncovered so far points to the tomb’s owner as being a Macedonian royal, related to Alexander the Great, with the most popular theory pointing to Olympias, Alexander’s mother.  Archaeologists are already calling the Amphipolis tomb ‘the discovery of the decade’.


Featured image: A sketch of the limestone sarcophagus found beneath the floor of the third chamber of the Amphipolis Tomb in northern Greece. Credit: ANA-MPA
By April Holloway

- See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/breaking-news-skeleton-found-inside-sarcophagus-amphipolis-tomb-012312#sthash.Whbq1JEw.dpuf
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PostSubject: Human remains found at Amphipolis   Wed Nov 12, 2014 1:27 pm

Human remains found at Amphipolis


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 4:30 PM 


The Greek Ministry of Culture announced today that an almost intact skeleton was discovered in the third chamber of the Kasta Mound at Amphipolis.






 The large cist-like limestone tomb discovered at a depth of 1.6m under the floor  of the third chamber [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 A large tomb built from limestone blocks was discovered at a depth of 1.6m under the floor of the chamber.


 The  tomb, which is preserved to a height of 1.00m, measures some 3.23m in length and 1.56m in width. However, large blocks (orthostats) which are part of the tomb's superstructure were also found during the excavations indicating that the tomb's height may have reached at least 1.80m.






 Iron and copper nails indicate the presence of a wooden coffin  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 Within the tomb an elongated depression measuring 0.54m wide and 2.35m long was found wherein a wooden coffin was placed. Iron and copper nails, as well as bone and glass decorations from the coffin itself, were found scattered around the area. 


It should be noted that the total height of the third chamber from the top of the dome to the floor is 8.9m. 






Bone and glass decorations from the wooden coffin  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


The skeleton was discovered both within and without the built tomb. The sex and age of the deceased has yet to be determine. The remains will be transferred to a special lab in order to carry out genetic tests in the hope of determining the identity of the tomb's occupant. 


The funerary complex on Kasta hill is almost certainly a public work, given that the sheer quantity of marble used in its construction is unrivalled by an other Macedonian tomb. The mound's height (33m), capped by the pedestal with its imposing lion, the sphinxes, the caryatids, the beautiful mosaic with the abduction of Persephone, and the painted marble architraves, show an original synthesis of diverse elements which make this monument unique.









 Axonometric view of the third chamber showing the position of the  limestone built tomb [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 



It is an extremely precise construction, the cost of which is obviously unlikely to have been undertaken by any one individual.


 Indeed, it seems likely that this construction was intended as a memorial to a prominent figure of the time to whom were bestowed religious honours and veneration. 










Architectural members from the Kasta mound found in the nearby  Kerkinis Lake [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 To launch the work of the reconstruction of the Kasta mound, the scattered architectural members identified and assigned to the precinct are being studied systematically. About 500 marble elements have been located in the surrounding area where the Lion of Amphipolis today stands.


 The receding waters of the nearby lake Kerkinis have also revealed more than a hundred members of the precinct, including cornices, pillars and crowns, used in the construction of the Kerkinis dam in 1936. Source: Greek Ministry of Culture [November 12, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/11/human-remains-found-at-amphipolis.html#.VGOXMfnF_Qg

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PostSubject: Human remains found in Amphipolis tomb   Thu Nov 13, 2014 10:07 am

Human remains found in Amphipolis tomb


November 12th, 2014



Excavation of the third chamber of the Kasta Tumulus in Amphipolis has revealed a limestone cyst grave containing human remains 1.6 meters (5’2″) beneath the surviving floor stones. The grave is 3.23 meters (10’7″) long, 1.56 meters (5’1″) wide and one meter (3’3″) high, but uprights discovered when the cyst was excavated indicate the walls were original at least 1.8 meters (5’10″) high. Two of the limestone slabs that once covered the grave are missing, and bones were found both inside and outside the grave, evidence the tomb was interfered with by looters in antiquity
.

When the soil filling the grave was removed, archaeologists found a little ledge going around the bottom inside perimeter. A wooden coffin was originally placed on that ledge. It has long since rotted away, but iron and copper nails from the coffin were found scattered, as were ivory and glass decorations that once adorned it.


The bones have been removed and will be studied in the lab. The hope is that they will be able to tell us something about the identity of the tomb’s owner. It’s going to be a tall order. Even determining sex from disarticulated bone pieces is a challenge that could well be insurmountable.


The always excellent Dorothy King of PhDiva posits that if the remains prove to be male, a likely candidate for the occupant of this tomb is Hephaestion, Alexander’s the Great’s closest friend from childhood who was worshipped as a divine hero after his premature death from a fever in 324 B.C. Alexander was devastated by the loss of Hephaestion, likening their relationship to that of Achilles and Patroclos of Trojan War fame and explicitly modeling his mourning after Achilles’.

Plutarch describes Alexander’s reaction to Hephaestion’s death in Parallel Lives:


Quote :
Alexander’s grief at this loss knew no bounds. He immediately ordered that the manes and tails of all horses and mules should be shorn in token of mourning, and took away the battlements of the cities round about; he also crucified the wretched physician, and put a stop to the sound of flutes and every kind of music in the camp for a long time, until an oracular response from Ammon came bidding him honour Hephaestion as a hero and sacrifice to him. Moreover, making war a solace for his grief, he went forth to hunt and track down men, as it were, and overwhelmed the nation of the Cossaeans, slaughtering them all from the youth upwards. This was called an offering to the shade of Hephaestion. Upon a tomb and obsequies for his friend, and upon their embellishments, he purposed to spend ten thousand talents, and wished that the ingenuity and novelty of the construction should surpass the expense. He therefore longed for Stasicratesa above all other artists, because in his innovations there was always promise of great magnificence, boldness, and ostentation. This man, indeed, had said to him at a former interview that of all mountains the Thracian Athos could most readily be given the form and shape of a man; if, therefore, Alexander should so order, he would make out of Mount Athos a most enduring and most conspicuous statue of the king, which in its left hand should hold a city of ten thousand inhabitants, and with its right should pour forth a river running with generous current into the sea. This project, it is true, Alexander had declined; but now he was busy devising and contriving with his artists projects far more strange and expensive than this.

So according to Plutarch Alexander had decided against turning all of Mount Athos into a sort of pre-dynamite one-man Mount Rushmore monument to himself, but he planned to make an even more elaborate tomb for his beloved companion, one worthy of a divine hero. Perhaps Alexander’s death in 323 B.C. kept the crazier of the grandiose plans from taking hold or perhaps the ancient sources were exaggerating, as they so often did, but it’s in keeping with Hephaestion’s importance to Alexander and the posthumous honors he received that the largest tomb ever found in Greece would have been built for him.

According to the Greek Culture Ministry, the Kasta Tumulus has to have a public religious purpose like the tomb of a divine hero. The tomb used the greatest amount of marble ever assembled in Macedonia, and the variety and precision of decorative and architectural techniques — the sphinxes, painted architraves, pebble mosaics in the entryway, the Persephone tile mosaic, the caryatids, the lion that was once on top of the tomb — make it a uniquely complex project. Its size

 
and scope was so massive no individual could havemustered the resources to construct it. The archaeological team plans to examine the 430 or so marble elements from the tomb that the Romans stripped from the tomb in the 2nd century A.D. and used to shore up the banks of the river Strymon. Perhaps pieces from inside the tomb, fragments of the grave, for example, might be recovered that will lend additional insight.

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PostSubject: Tests on Amphipolis tomb remains could take months    Tue Nov 18, 2014 11:58 pm

Tests on Amphipolis tomb remains could take months 


Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 10:00 PM 


Culture Ministry official Lina Mendoni revealed on Monday that it could take more than eight months for experts to complete test on the human remains found in the ancient tomb being excavated in Amphipolis, northern Greece.






 Artist's reconstruction of the burial unearthed in the Kasta Mound at Amphipolis. It must  be stressed however that this is strictly hypothetical given that the sex of the individual  has yet to be established [Credit: Ta Nea] 


The ministry’s general secretary said that authorities have not yet assigned the task of conducting the tests to a university or other organisation.


 Mendoni said that most of the field work at Amphipolis has been completed but that archaeologists still had plenty of work ahead in terms of assessing what has been found at the site. 


DNA tests pose major challenge 


Archaeologists are discussing the possibility of comparing the DNA of the remains from the tomb in Vergina of Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, with the remains found in Amphipolis.


 Mendoni said the challenge was no easy one as the bones found at Vergina had not only been cremated but they were discovered more than 50 years ago, when conservation procedures were less thorough. Source: Kathimerini [November 17, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/11/tests-on-amphipolis-tomb-remains-could.html#.VGwUtfnF_Qg
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PostSubject: Search continues at Amphipolis burial mound    Sun Nov 23, 2014 8:45 pm

Search continues at Amphipolis burial mound


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 6:00 PM 


Scientists have opened the second phase of their excavation of the vast 4th-century BC burial mound in Amphipolis town in search of more tombs and bodies.






 A view of Casta Hill where archaeologists are excavating a large 4th century BC tomb, near Amphipolis in northern Greece, on Saturday, Nov. 22, 2014. Officials say the vast ancient burial mound at Amphipolis in Greece could contain more than one dead. Greek Culture Minister Costas Tasoulas said Saturday scientists have started the second phase of excavation at the burial site, dating back to Alexander the Great's reign in the late 4th century BC  [Credit: AP/Grigoris Siamidis]


The first search of the site, which was built shortly after Alexander the Great's death, discovered and dug up a tomb containing a skeleton.






 Workers operate outside Casta Hill where archaeologists are excavating a large 4th century BC tomb, near Amphipolis in northern Greece, on Saturday, Nov. 22, 2014. Officials say the vast ancient burial mound at Amphipolis in Greece could contain more than one dead. Greek Culture Minister Costas Tasoulas said Saturday scientists have started the second phase of excavation at the burial site, dating back to Alexander the Great's reign in the late 4th century BC  [Credit: AP/Grigoris Siamidis]


 Greek Culture Minister Costas Tasoulas visited the burial mound in northern Greece on Saturday to announce the new phase of the exploration.






 Workers operate atop of Casta Hill where archaeologists are excavating a large 4th century BC tomb, near Amphipolis in northern Greece, on Saturday, Nov. 22, 2014. Officials say the vast ancient burial mound at Amphipolis in Greece could contain more than one dead. Greek Culture Minister Costas Tasoulas said Saturday scientists have started the second phase of excavation at the burial site, dating back to Alexander the Great's reign in the late 4th century BC [Credit: AP/Grigoris Siamidis]


 Geophysicists are scanning the site to see if there are other structures besides the splendid, three-chamber tomb discovered in August. The area being scanned is about one-seventh of the total of 2 hectares (5 acres) that the mound covers. 






Tourists visit the ancient site of Amphipolis where archaeologists are excavating a large 4th century BC tomb, in northern Greece, on Saturday, Nov. 22, 2014. Officials say the vast ancient burial mound at Amphipolis in Greece could contain more than one dead. Greek Culture Minister Costas Tasoulas said Saturday scientists have started the second phase of excavation at the burial site, dating back to Alexander the Great's reign in the late 4th century BC  [Credit: AP/Grigoris Siamidis]


 One goal is to try to calculate the discovered skeleton's gender and age. Identifying it may never be possible, even if its DNA is checked, said Lina Mendoni, the culture ministry's general secretary.






 A policeman guards the entrance which links to Casta Hill, background, where archaeologists are excavating a large 4th century BC tomb, near Amphipolis in northern Greece, on Saturday, Nov. 22, 2014. Officials say the vast ancient burial mound at Amphipolis in Greece could contain more than one dead. Greek Culture Minister Costas Tasoulas said Saturday scientists have started the second phase of excavation at the burial site, dating back to Alexander the Great's reign in the late 4th century BC [Credit: AP/Grigoris Siamidis] 


Speculation on the identity has been rife among experts, including speculation that it was Alexander's mother, widow, son, half-brother, or Nearchos, one of Alexander's closest aides and an Amphipolis native. 


Meanwhile, archaeologists are still uncovering multicolored decorations found inside the dug up tomb. Lasers will be used to study them, Mendoni said. 


Author: Costas Kantouris | Source: The Associated Press [November 23, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/11/search-continues-at-amphipolis-burial.html
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PostSubject: Occupant of Amphipolis tomb remains a mystery   Mon Dec 01, 2014 12:21 pm

Occupant of Amphipolis tomb remains a mystery


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 7:00 PM


 The archaeologist leading the dig at the ancient tomb in Amphipolis, northern Greece, said on Saturday that the site had once been open to the public but was later sealed, although this did not protect it from raiders who stole many items. 






“It is certain there was damage and plundering in ancient times as it was a large monument that people could visit,” said Katerina Peristeri at a news conference.


 Peristeri refused to be drawn on the possible identity of the skeleton found inside the tomb, which dates to the era of Alexander the Great, despite earlier comments that a top Macedonian general was the most likely occupant.


 “I had said some time ago that with a lion on top of such a massive monument, it could be the tomb of a general,” said Peristeri. “When the skeleton was found, an archaeologist could never say if it is a man or a woman.”


 The results of tests on the remains are expected in several months. Peristeri said that the skeleton was in “poor condition.” She dismissed rumors that Amphipolis could have been the burial place of Alexander the Great.


 “I do not respond to conspiracy theories about Alexander the Great being buried there,” she said.


 Ms. Peristeri also revealed that among the finds of the excavation were coins dating to the era of Alexander the Great as well as from the second century BC to the third century AD. Source: Kathimerini [November 28, 2014]

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PostSubject: Amphipolis Press Conference: Archaeologists reveal new secrets of ancient tomb at Kasta Hill   Mon Dec 01, 2014 1:36 pm


29 NOVEMBER, 2014 - 23:00 APRILHOLLOWAY


Amphipolis Press Conference: Archaeologists reveal new secrets of ancient tomb at Kasta Hill



The Greek archaeological and research team who have spent the past few months excavating the enormous tomb of Amphipolis in northern Greece, have given their first complete presentation of the excavation results at the Ministry of Culture in Athens, revealing new fascinating information about this monumental discovery.
Kasta Hill lies in what was once the ancient city of Amphipolis, conquered by Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great, in 357 BC. Experts have known about the existence of the burial mound in Amphipolis, located about 100km northeast of Thessaloniki, since the 1960s, but work only began in earnest there in 2012, when archaeologists discovered that Kasta Hill had been surrounded by a nearly 500-meter wall made from marble.

Damage to the marble wall

Lead archaeologist Katerina Peristeri has now revealed that only 80 meters worth of marble has been recovered from the 500-meter perimeter, as much of it had been plundered in the past, with some of it being used to make roads and dams, and other pieces taken for the construction of local buildings and houses. Parts of an old crane were also found, probably once used to lift the marble from the wall. In the early 1900s, another tragedy had occurred – the British Army, who had been posted to the region in 1915, attempted to take much of the marble, as well as the Lion of Amphipolis statue back to Britain. They were stopped by an attack from the Bulgarians and Austrians, and pieces of marble were left scattered in a 5 kilometer radius around Kasta Hill.
Left: The Kasta Hill burial mound. Source: Amfipoli News.  Right: The 500-meter long wall made from marble and limestone surrounds the enormous burial mound. Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture
Earlier this year, archaeologists discovered a path and 13 steps leading down from the surrounding wall. It was then that they uncovered a limestone wall protecting and concealing the entrance of the tomb of Amphipolis. Behind the wall, archaeologists revealed two marble sphinxes, both headless and missing their wings, but these were recovered during excavations.  Bit by bit, the grand tomb began revealing the secrets that had lain hidden for 2,300 years. "We knew we had to return there and solve the mystery of the hill," said Peristeri in yesterday’s press conference.
Outside the tomb, researchers discovered the engraved Greek letters “E” and “A”, which architect Michael Lefantzis said are typical of that specific era. He also stressed that the letters are not name initials, they are related to the construction work of the era.



Looting and vandalism

New research has revealed that the vast tomb had been open to the public in antiquity, leading to looting and damage by the invading Romans. Sealing walls at the tomb were constructed during the Roman era to keep vandals and looters away, but much damage had already been done. This has made it difficult to immediately identify the owner of the tomb, as many artifacts that would been buried alongside the individual, and would have helped with identification, are missing.
“It is certain there was damage and plundering in ancient times as it was a large monument that people could visit,” said Peristeri.
Two marble sphinxes guard the entrance to the Amphipolis tomb. Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture.

Discoveries inside the tomb chambers



In the first chamber of the tomb, archaeologists made a major discovery – two beautifully carved marble caryatids (sculpted female figures serving as architectural supports taking the place of a column or a pillar), measuring 3.7 meters in height, including the base. The caryatids are wearing a sleeved tunic and earrings, and feature long, curly hair covering their shoulders. The right arm of the western caryatid and the left arm of the eastern one are both outstretched, as if to symbolically stop anyone attempting to enter the grave. The face of one of the sculptures survives almost intact, while the other one is missing. Archaeologists have now been able to determine that the face was damaged when a beam fell down from the chamber ceiling in the past.
The caryatids. Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture
As they entered the second chamber of the tomb, more spectacles awaited – a magnificent mosaic which covers the entire floor area and depicting a well-known scene. The mural shows the abduction of Persephone, daughter of Zeus and Demeter and goddess of agriculture and fertility, by Hades/Pluto. A mural representing the exact same scene was discovered in the tomb of Philip II, Alexander the Great's father.
Amphipolis mosaic depicting the abduction of Persefonis. Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture

Coins and pottery



Archaeologists have now revealed that they had also found coins and pottery inside the chambers, dating back to between the 4th and 2nd centuries BC, along with two marble shields that are believed to have been part of the lion sculpture that once stood at the top of Kasta Hill. Some of the coins show the face of Alexander the Great.

The burial vault



In the third chamber, archaeologists found a hidden vault in the floor that had been sealed with limestone. It contained human remains inside a sarcophagus. The skeleton had once been inside a wooden coffin (now disintegrated), which had been sealed with iron and bronze nails. Bone and glass decorative elements and skeletal remains were found both within and outside the limestone sarcophagus.
The limestone burial vault. Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture
The remains are now being examined by experts and results may not be available for several months yet. Peristeri said that the identity of the skeleton is still unknown, but certainly belongs to an important figure.
"We have no clear clues on the identity of the buried person based on the sculpture of the Lion which stood on top of the hill and the other architectural finds,” said Lefantzis. “We do know that the dead was a prominent figure...In my opinion he was a warrior."
While Peristeri appears to be hedging her bets on a Macedonian General of Alexander the Great’s army, due to the lion that once stood atop the burial mound, she also referred to the fact that in the past, the burial mound was known to locals as “The Tomb of the Queen”.
Nevertheless, Peristeri refused to be drawn into a debate on the possible identity of the skeleton found inside the tomb at the press conference. "I cannot tell who was buried or not buried at the tomb. Be patient and our search will give you answers," she concluded.
Geophysical scans of Kasta Hill have revealed that there may be much more lying hidden within the enormous burial mound, and archaeologists have announced that more excavations may begin in the near future.
Featured Image: Amphipolis Tomb by Greektoys.org (update) on Sketchfab.
By April Holloway
- See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/amphipolis-press-conference-secrets-020119#sthash.CKxsfbWC.dpuf
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PostSubject: Amphipolis frieze features bull and human forms   Thu Dec 04, 2014 8:33 am

Amphipolis frieze features bull and human forms


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 6:30 PM 


The painted scenes that once decorated the marble sections above the architraves in the third chamber of the Amphipolis tomb (in which the spectacular mosaic is also located) are gradually being revealed.






 An animal, probably a bull, can be seen in the centre of this scene, flanked by a male  and female figure [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture] 


The marbles, on which the decoration is painted, were placed over the uprights of the walls and beneath the roof’s marble beams, which, as announced, also have painted decoration, namely imitation panels with attached rosettes.


 On one of the sections of the frieze, the central image of an animal, possibly a bull, is now discernible following the first phase of the preservation work which is continuing.






 A winged creature moves towards a three legged cauldron  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 Flanking the animal are a man and a woman, depicted in motion. To the right and left of the female and male figures respectively are urns and winged creatures. The winged creature on the right side is shown moving towards a three legged cauldron. 


In many areas of the painted scenes, such as on the woman’s headdress and the man’s garment, traces of red, blue and ochre are still visible.


 The upper section of the architrave is decorated in the Ionic style. Source: Greek Ministry of Culture [December 03, 2014]

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PostSubject: The artistic value of the magnificent sculptures of Amphipolis   Sat Dec 06, 2014 10:20 am




6 DECEMBER, 2014 - 12:24 GERASIMOS GEROL...

The artistic value of the magnificent sculptures of Amphipolis

Roman writer Pliny the Elder (1st century AD), in his writings about ancient Greek art, said that after the Greek sculptor Lysippus, art ceased to exist (“deinde cessarit ars”). He believed that after the great creations of Lysippus, the personal sculptor of Alexander the Great, what characterized the art of the Hellenistic period was at best a classicized form, a decadent version of the higher classical art.


The Roman writer expressed rather a conservative opinion of the art of his era. Apparently, he was not impressed by the innovations of the Hellenistic period, and insisted on going back to the authentic style of art that sealed with its high quality of expression, an era that was at least three centuries before his own. The reason that I have started this article with a reference of Pliny, is because of the clear boundaries he placed between the two artistic eras, the classic and the Hellenistic periods, using the work of the bronze sculptor, Lysippus, as the last example of high quality classic art.


The time frame when Lysippus was active, during the second half of the 4th century BC, brings us at the same time to the era that the archaeological team provided for the creation of the Amphipolis tomb in Greece, which is between 325 and 300 BC. The sculptures that were found inside the tomb certainly do not belong to the description of classical art that Lysippus provided, and are not consistent with the realistic and personalized characteristics of classical art as we know it. 


But on the other hand they also do not belong to the mature Hellenistic period. So what could this possibly mean?




Caryatid sculptures found within Amphipolis tomb in Greece. Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture


What happened here is probably the same as what typically happens to pieces of art created during a transition period between an older artistic style and a new one – they appear to have a combination of characteristics that make their dating amphoteric; in other words, they could belong to either period. Different opinions talk about a ‘classicizing’ style of the caryatid statues (female statues serving as architectural supports) in Amphipolis, supporting the view that they just mimic the older genuine classic style, which was appreciated with nostalgia during the Roman period, as we have seen with Pliny. There is also the opinion that the sculptures are creations of artists from the island of Paros, while a few mentioned the ‘Athenian’ workshops too. The island of Thasos, where we will find the quarries that were used for building the monument, had a direct connection with the island of Paros, both belonging to the same Municipality. It is clear that artists from Paros, at the end of the fourth century BC, were following a sculptural tradition that still preserved the memories of the archaic style, during a period of time when Macedonia didn’t have any notable sculpture workshops. I tend to appreciate the second opinion as the most appropriate to explain the sculpting style.


The proposition that the marble statue of the Lion in Amphipolis was positioned at the top of the hill, additionally places with confidence the building of the tomb at the ends of the fourth century BC. In any case, other characteristics of the caryatids like the drapery of their tunics and how they are carved on the statue, show a distance from the classical motives of caryatids of the fifth century BC.


 They imprint a lively style of artistic expression and experimentation that combines the previous classical achievements along with any classical innovation that had already started to appear in arts at the end of the fourth century, preparing the era of the Hellenistic period. The tomb is special because of the existence of statues and certainly is distinguished because of the innovations in comparison to other Macedonian tombs, and at the same time is the largest monument of its kind that has ever been discovered in Greece.




Scaled representation of how the caryatid sculptures would have once looked inside the Amphipolis tomb. © Gerasimos G. Gerolymatos.


The caryatid statues for the era that we are talking about, represent an excellent early sample that could reveal one of the first entries in the development towards the Hellenistic period, and this is probably the greatest artistic value of the sculptures of the Amphipolis burial monument, since they could help art historians better understand the transition from classical to Hellenistic art. I have also suggested as appropriate the study of the Tanagra figurines, in order to examine commonalities with the caryatids’ morphological directions. We frequently know that because of freedom of expression, arts such as ceramics and pottery painting were the first to flag any change of style, while the high art of large temples and public buildings were not as willing to change their official established style.


The pieces of art that were found in the monument include two sphinxes at the entrance of the tomb, the two large caryatid statues, and the marvelous figurative mosaic of the Abduction of Persephone before the chamber of the main tomb. The mosaic, as well as other painted art of that period, reveals clearly that ancient Greek artists had the knowledge of perspective and representation of three dimensions. The chariot and the horses are represented with a ¾ perspective, something that would be a challenge even for the artists of the early Renaissance. 
From the scaled representations that I have created, the first one (above) is clearly a design, while the second one (the featured image) is in color. They are based on the announcements of the archaeologists in reference to the dimensions, colors, and findings, as they were published with their respective photos. The third colored representation (below) is, to a large extent, speculative and is a combination of a few real colors as they are presented in the second representation, as well as a few colors that I have added based on logical speculations and using decorative elements from other Macedonian tombs that were probably common in terms of the burial traditions of that Era.




Speculative representation of the decorative elements within the Amphipolis tomb, combining findings of real color traces with logical assumptions based on decorative elements from other Macedonian tombs © Gerasimos G. Gerolymatos.


In relation to the colors, the tomb of Amphipolis appears to follow the basic set of colors of other Macedonian tombs of that Era, which are primarily white, blue and red. The rest is enriched with the use of other colors in secondary elements, such as black, yellow, red ochre and green, creating an interesting chromatic result.


 The white of the marble dominates and it is the basic background color on which blue and red develop – these are the two colors used in larger quantity than all others. The different proportions of each of the colors that cover the surfaces, appear to also apply to the chromatic variations inside the tomb. While I was drawing the representation of the interior of the monument, I realized that the proportional use of these colors was not random at all, since it appears to follow a conscious intention to give colors - among other things, a meaning and a symbolic character.


There is a pervasive theatricality with the intention of impressing the visitor - which with the multiple sceneries, is reminiscent of an early baroque style. So when we enter the tomb from the gate of the two Sphinxes – who are the guardians of the tomb, most probably painted red – we go through the first corridor with the mosaic floor. We then reach the impressive gate of the caryatids, who are painted intensively with a feeling of ‘pop art’, basically with dark blue color, then entering the second chamber where the blue background of the Abduction of Persephone overrules and is the vestibule of the main tomb. The presence of two main warm and cold colors, the red and blue, define proportionally and symbolically the two different areas. I assume that in this way the two vestibules of the tomb represent nothing more than a symbol of the life of the dead person, where the first chamber with the warmth represents his/her life and actions, while the second represents the entrance to death, since the mosaic presents the unwilling abduction of Persephone by Pluto. This passageway from life to death, which the dead followed, was sealed with the glory of immortality behind the heavy marble door, leading beneath the entrance of caryatids, which had in my opinion a glorified character. For this reason, and by noticing the specific position of their arms, I assume that the caryatids were holding an object and specifically a wreath of glory for the dead hero.


Visit the blog site of Gerasimos G. Gerolymatos here.


Featured image: Artistic representation of the caryatids in the Amphipolis tomb, © Gerasimos G. Gerolymatos.


By Gerasimos Gerolymatos

- See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-general/artistic-value-magnificent-sculptures-amphipolis-002408#sthash.621cKdQ4.dpuf
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PostSubject: AMPHIPOLIS TOMB Dec 2**ALEXANDER'S**INDICATED-Tomb Size, Entrance & S.E. Facing LION   Wed Dec 17, 2014 12:28 pm

AMPHIPOLIS TOMB Dec 2**ALEXANDER'S**INDICATED-Tomb Size, Entrance & S.E. Facing LION





***The position of the LION facing South-East, towards the location of his death, plus the location of the TOMB'S OPENING which is on the SOUTH-EAST side of the circular TOMB, all point to it BELONGING to ALEXANDER THE GREAT. Alexander the Great died in Babylon, S.E. of Amphipolis, Greece. He was placed in a GOLD COFFIN filled with HONEY and 2 years later was brought for burial to Egypt. It took 2 years to FINISH the AMPHIPOLIS TOMB'S construction ,which was meant to be for ALEXANDER the GREAT'S final resting place. Alexander was cremated (only the flesh and NOT the bones) and his requilary box of his bones were 40 years later taken to be buried in Macedonia, most likely in Amphipolis, the city he desired to also build a temple in. Latest Updates from Ministry of Culture Archaeologist team Greece re Amphipolis Tomb Excavations, Press release Nov 29, 2014. AMPHIPOLIS TOMB South-East Facing LION, SIZE of TOMB
poiint to it BELONGING to ALEXANDER the GREAT. "The original Lions' placement was not on the top of the tomb. It was at the golden ratio of the diameter of the circular tomb. The cyclical Tomb's diameter is exactly 30 times the Lion statue's height."




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PostSubject: Re: Inside the antechamber of the Amphipolis tomb    Wed Dec 17, 2014 4:03 pm

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PostSubject: More structures identified at Amphipolis mound   Sun Dec 21, 2014 9:18 am

More structures identified at Amphipolis mound


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 7:00 PM 


A geophysical survey was carried out on Kasta Hill, where the mysterious tomb of Amphipolis was discovered, with the results indicating the location of additional man-made structures of archaeological importance. 






Aerial view of the Kasta Mound at Amphipolis [Credit: To Vima]


 By using the scanned images, the archaeological team will be able to construct a rudimentary map of the archaological remains hidden within the hill, allowing them to prioritize and arrange future excavations in the area.


 So far it appears that the geophysical survey that was carried out seems to confirm speculation that the hill is in fact a complex of various constructions. A similar survey of the tomb itself will also be carried out in order to focus the archaeological efforts and discover further secrets.


 Meanwhile a team of Greek scientists has been chosen to carry out the investigation of the bones that were found in the fourth chamber of the tomb. The scientists will determine the age and gender of the deceased, which has so far puzzled archaeologists and may help towards determining his or her identity. 


Source: To Vima [December 19, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/12/more-structures-identified-at.html#.VJbH6F4BQ
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PostSubject: First geophysical scan of Amphipolis mound released   Tue Dec 23, 2014 9:34 am

First geophysical scan of Amphipolis mound released


 Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, Greece, Southern Europe 6:00 PM 


The Ministry of Culture has announced that according to the results of the geophysical scan of Kasta Hill [pictured] in Amphipolis, where the enigmatic ancient Greek tomb has been located, human intervention appears to be rather limited.








 Areas marked p1 to p4 indicate areas with especially high electrical resistance  [Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture]


 The team of scientists primarily used electrical tomography techniques – and to a lesser extent ground penetrating radar (GPR) – in order to examine human intervention on the hill.


 As it transpires, the man-made embankment is only a minor portion of the hill. The geophysical survey and mapping of Kasta Hill began on the 11th of November and is carried out whenever the weather conditions permit. Scientists expect the scan to highlight areas of interest for future archaeological investigation.


 Source: To Vima [December 22, 2014]

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/12/geophysical-scan-of-amphipolis-mound.html#.VJluhl4BQ
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